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Why can colors vary lot to lot

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dye lot is a record taken during manufacturing ensuring the products received  coloration in the same vat at the same time. Paint and dye manufacturers assign each lot a unique identification number and stamp it on the label before shipping. Slight differences in temperature, dyeing time, and other factors can result in different shades of the same color between different dye lots of otherwise identical production. Although elements of a dye lot number kept by internal business record keeping, retail yarn and paint consumers have an interest in ensuring that they purchase a given color from identical dye lots.

PRL Resins has expertise of over 40 years perfecting their products, service and processes. They hold the go-to authority reputation regarding the sensitive nature of products madeof resins, solvents and other industrial surfaces.

Resin

  • Resin holds together the pigment in suspension, provides surface adhesion and determines the quality and durability.

Pigment

  • The pigment is in a powder form  much like concrete, and the average aftermarket automobile paint system includes about 100 colors or toners to mix formulas, including metallic and pearl colors.

Solvent

  • The solvent provides  transferability, as without solvent the paint would be too thick to transfer between containers.

Theory vs Chemical Reactions

The paint is mixed to exact specifications and all painting performed from that lot of paint will be exactly the same even after sunlight, drying and ultraviolet exposure.  However, if the same formula is followed at another temperature or humidity on another day, that lot of paint can be a different shade and sometimes in some of the related colors such as blue-green, it can be another color altogether.  Therefore, lots are important and paint compound from one is not going to match perfectly when application is finished.

The same is true in fabrics, and yarn or fabric from the same dye lot is desirable in sufficient amount to complete an article of clothing.

Modern  Technical Controls of PRL Resins

PRL Resins has conquered most inconsistency problems with expert handling of their resin that goes beyond that found in any other manufacturing company, and with their high UL certification. The industrial compound ingredients that permit

PRL Resins to manufacture products with truer color matches include:

  • Additives-
    • UV stability
    • Colorants
    • easy release by mold releases
    • other stability additives
  • Modifiers-
    • Impact Modifiers
    • Flame Retardants
    • Flow Enhancers
  • Reinforcing Agents-
    • Glass fibers
    • Mineral fillers

Revolutionary Data Color Spectrophotometer

Merging SPC with their integrated statistical process control ensures PRL Resins of precise color matching with their custom color control.

Precision color matching:

The continued reinvestment by PRL Resins back into their plastic resin technology, together with their staff of experienced color lab specialists, ensure precise color matching. A Data Color Spectrophotometer with integrated statistical process control SPC gives exact color matching capabilities and ensures lot-to-lot color consistency.This SPC control makes PRL a go-to authority in color and lot consistency.  It provides them with expertise to warranty their products fully and offer complete service support to their clients.

Why the light source effects color

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Color provides an emotional impact and is sometimes synonymous with a brand. Having the precise color match for your product is a quality that consumers will rely on and expect. However, different light sources can adjust the perceived color of polymers and resins, which you need to take into consideration when manufacturing and displaying your products.

Molecular Structure

The polymer’s molecular structure dictates how it processes light emissions. For example, crystalline resins have a semi-opaque look because of the mixture of their ordered and disordered domains. These characteristics cause the crystalline resins like PP to bend light differently. In comparison, non-crystalline resins are usually comprised of disordered domains, so this causes the light to pass straight through them, causing their transparency.

Melting Points

Another characteristic that has a significant impact on how much light influences a particular resin is its melting points. For example, crystalline resins have a high melting point, requiring much more heat before they alter in appearance. To maintain their appearance, inorganic pigments or other materials may be used that provide stability even at higher temperatures.  Not using heat-stable materials can cause there to be light and dark streaks in the resin.

Chemical Makeup

When polymers contain cross-linked rubber particles, their appearance may be whiter in appearance.  This is the case with such polymers as acrylic, HIPS and ABS. Rubber alters the way that light passes through the resin once it is toughened. If two different color coatings have the same chemical composition, they will match under any light source.
Refractive Index

Another component that affects the color of the resin based on the light source is the angle at which the light bends as it passes through the polymer. Resins that have a combination of different refractive indices can be mixed together, which causes the light to not have a single path to go through. This causes the resin to have a more opaque quality to it.

Energy Distribution

Color changes as it is observed under two different light sources when they have different energy distributions. Even if the resin appears to be the same color due to the same refractive index, the color will be observed differently if the energy distribution is different between the two samples due to a different light source.

Color Matching Tips

Because each light source can affect the color of a polymer, it is important for you to specify the light source in which you plan the resin to be viewed. This will help ensure precise color matching. Here are a few tips to ensure your color will match and that you are satisfied with your experience:

  • Specify if you need a color match with more than one light source.
  • Ask about any additional costs associated with manufacturing a polymer with different colorants due to varying light sources
  • Consider the color match’s tolerance under different light sources
  • Specify the type of spectrophotometer that you wish to use as this tool will help provide the basis for the color match.

The advantages to the customer of multiple warehouses

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There are many techniques and theories when it comes to warehousing. Companies can choose between operating between single centrally located warehouses and operating multiple warehouses throughout a region or a country. In multiple warehousing systems, companies spread out to cover territories and be easily accessible to customers. It offers many benefits as compared to single centrally located warehouse systems. There is plenty of debate regarding which is the most efficient and effective. Ultimately, it all comes down to the satisfaction of customers. Depending on the customer satisfaction, it is more appropriate to have multiple warehouses.

Imagine a customer trying to get a product to the middle of Texas when there is only one single located warehouse in New York. While the product would eventually get there, would you lose anything by having it take long? When you have multiple warehouses, there are clear advantages that make you reliable to customers in the long run. From saving on transportation costs to making clients happy, the use of multiple warehouse system just makes sense.

Here are the advantages of having multiple warehouses:

  • Quick delivery: with multiple warehouses, delivery time can be cut down pretty dramatically, meaning that you can move more products at a quicker pace. Instead of customers waiting for products to arrive from one single centrally located warehouse, their orders will be shipped quickly from various warehouses, meaning their purchased products arrive quickly.
  • Low transportation costs: because products will spread out over a larger area when you have multiple warehouses, the cost of delivering purchased products significantly decreases as warehouses are in the vicinity of customers.
  • Easy accessibility: instead of having your products in one place, they will be in multiple places, meaning that if a customer needs a product, the entire process becomes much easier. Having your products spread out means having easy access to multiple warehouses rather than one centrally located warehouse.

Other advantages of multiple warehouses are:

  • Elimination of middlemen in between manufacturers and ultimate consumers.
  • They avail the advantages of bulk purchasing.
  •  Uniformity of prices and quality of products sold is maintained at all warehouses.
  • If one warehouse has short supplies, then it can be immediately replenished from another warehouse so that customers can easily access products.
  •  There are low operating costs hence prices are not increased to cater for operations.
  • There are flexibilities of operation in such warehouse systems.
  • If one warehouse is closed, customers can still access products in other warehouses as compared to single centrally located warehouses where if closed, there are no more operations.

What is a Data color Spectophotometer and why do I care

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Serious investment in a Data Color Spectrophotometer is required to be a major force in the plastic and resin technology field. By equipping our production facilities with the latest Data Color Spectrophotometer technology, Polymer Resources’s color lab specialists are able to engineer precise consistency between lots. Accurate color matching is essential for establishing brands, creating consistent products and taking precise samplings of existing materials. No matter the scope of the project, our specialists are capable of dealing with all types of color matching – even gloss and fluorescent material!

Dye mills and colorant manufacturers agree that Data Color Spectrophotometer products are superior in their accuracy and consistency. By deploying this technology, Polymer Resources is able to work with highly precise and close-tolerant specifications. Our use of high resolution color management allows us to produce both short and long-term reliability while our highly experienced staff guides the plastic and resin manufacturing process.

Spectrophotometry is a vital aspect of skilled plastic work. By analyzing the reflective capacity of a material as well as its diffusivity, we can accurately reproduce any sample or mockup in a sizable scale. Our cutting edge use of Data Color Spectrophotometer technology lets us know exactly what materials are present in a lot and accurately reproduce it with production-level quality. Our double beam Data Color Spectrophotometer technology is highly accurate, using both a reference sample as well as your sample to guarantee precision engineering.

Regular diagnostic testing is essential when producing large amounts of product, and our Data Color Spectrophotometer technology is able to periodically check samplings of a lot to ensure consistency throughout. Integrated with Datacolor TOOLS, we are able to analyze and convey quality control results for our clients. Quality control information can be easily shared between members of our supply chain, making sure only perfect results pass through our gates.

Our exclusive use of industry leading and stable technology requires us to make use of very little calibration, causing our turn times to be significantly faster than less adept companies. Our lead times, among the lowest in the industry, result in shipping custom colors within 4 weeks and standard colors within 2 weeks. With regional warehouses throughout the nation, stock colors can be quickly delivered to you with little delay.

When you want a quality product, Polymer Resources employs only the best people and Data Color Spectrophotometer technology to get the job done. Celebrating over 40 years of success, we have the track record to inspire confidence and proudly guarantee accurate custom color matching for our all our cherished clients.

Polyetherimide sheet – Performance Characteristics and Applications

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Polyetherimide sheets (PEI) guarantees exceptional fire resistance along with excellent mechanical and thermal properties. The amorphous Polyetherimide sheets are suitable for high temperature applications. With properties like low levels of smoke evolution during combustion and very low flammability, they are widely used in electrical and electronic insulators. It can also resist a wide range of chemicals and offers good resistance to UV and gamma radiation.

There are several companies which utilizes the finest Polyetherimide sheets to custom fabricate components which needs long term mechanical strength and rigidity at elevated temperatures. Available either in transparent or opaque colors along with glass filled grades depending on the requirements, PEI exhibits higher levels of heat resistance, dielectric strength, chemical resistance and many more properties.

Custom sizes and colors of PEI sheets are available on request. So, what are the major performance characteristics of Polyetherimide sheets?

  • High mechanical strength and stiffness
  • Higher levels of dielectric strength
  • Excellent thermoforming properties
  • Resistance to hydrolysis during exposure to steam and hot water
  • Able to withstand repeated sterilization cycles
  • Excellent resistance to high energy radiation like UV and gamma
  • Excellent for food industry as it is physiologically inert

Because of the above mechanical, thermal and electrical properties, Polyetherimide sheets are widely used in the following applications

  • Electrical insulation parts
  • Manifolds
  • Chip test sockets
  • Medical instruments
  • Scientific equipments
  • Electrical connectors
  • Semiconductor components

Sheets and rods of Polyetherimide (PEI) are usually available in dark and glass filled formulations. It can easily maintain its strength at elevated temperatures in the range of 200 degree centigrade. For medical applications which require repeated sterilization cycles, Polyetherimide sheets are most suitable as this uniquely balanced thermoplastic can exhibit excellent mechanical properties and heat resistance. The easy to process thermoplastic material allows industries the flexibility in plastic injection molding and manufacturing.

Low moisture absorption and excellent creep resistance allows Polyetherimide sheets to possess amazing dimensional stability. When compared to other amorphous thermoplastics, the Polyetherimide resins show better resistance to stress and cracking in extremely demanding and challenging conditions. One of the key features of PEI sheets is to retain its properties even at high temperatures. Its resistance to mineral acids is simply outstanding, however it can be attacked by use of strong bases and partially halogenated solvents such as methylene chloride and trichloroethane.

Polyetherimide (PEI) is extruded to produce film, sheets, coated wire and profiles. Using solvent casting techniques, the thickness of PEI film can be around 0.25 mil. Major competitors of PEI sheets include polysulfones, polyketones, and polyphenylene sulfides.

A Practical Guide to choosing the Best Engineering Thermoplastics

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With a growing demand for plastic materials in different applications, engineering thermoplastics are developed to offer high performance in heat resistance, fire retardancy, mechanical strength or chemical resistance. Generally, engineering thermoplastics are known to exhibit heat resistance at high temperatures beyond 100 degree Celsius and also offers good flame retardant properties.

Different varieties of engineering thermoplastics can be created by blending two or more resins depending on the required properties. Thermoplastics are known to provide a cost effective and corrosion resistant alternative to different types of metals in various applications. A wide range of Engineering Thermoplastics are available in sheets, plates, tubes and rods which offers myriad advantages over metallic materials and also offers excellent mechanical and thermal properties.

As a production material, Engineering thermoplastics show reduction in weight, provide electrical and thermal insulation, offers great mechanical strength, durability, superior corrosion and chemical resistance, and ease of processing. The selection of the right set of engineering thermoplastics is an important decision and definitely a daunting task. It is important to consider the application requirements and choose engineering thermoplastics accordingly.

A few common types of Engineering plastics and their general uses are discussed below. The below information will help in your search for the perfect engineering thermoplastics for your application.

  • ABS Sheets – They are available in a wide range of color and texture finishes and offers a lot of versatility.
  • Polyethylene – Different variations are available in the market which are tailored to suit specific market requirements.
  • Acetal & Delrin sheets are considered as one of the strongest among all engineered thermoplastics.
  • Nylon -With their excellent properties and use in various applications, it is one of the most popular engineering plastics.
  • Polycarbonate – With a high heat resistance, it also offers chemical and water resistance.
  • Polypropylene – For applications exposed to cold temperature, PPC and PPH grades are highly preferred.
  • PTFE – It offers unrivalled chemical, thermal and electrical performance.

Additives can modify the properties of engineering thermoplastics which means that addition of fiber makes the thermoplastic strong and stiff, whereas adding plasticizers makes it more flexible. Use of anti-oxidants would make thermoplastics stable under high temperatures, whereas addition of lubricants makes it easier to mold.

With repeating units of monomers, Engineered thermoplastics are made up of long polymer chains. Various fillers from minerals to fibers can be added for strength, impact, and other performance enhancements like thermal conductivity, electrostatic dissipation etc. With professional cutting services, companies have been able to ensure high quality finishes and a quick turnaround time.

Nylon 66 Polymer – Step Reaction Polymerization

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Nylon-66 is a polyamide fibre which is manufactured by a process that involves step growth polymerization and condensation polymerization. The generic term used to define long chain synthetic polyamides is Nylon. One of the key members from the group of poly-condensation products of acids and diamines, Nylon-66 has great abrasion resistance, strength andresistance towards heat, water and chemicals.

When compared with Nylon 6, Nylon-66 is a superior version due to its higher melting point, greater dimensional stability and a more compact molecular structure. With a guarantee of excellent performance in high speed spinning processes, it also has good UV light-fastness and dye wash fastness.

There are different ways of referring to Nylon-66 as Nylon 6-6, Nylon 6,6 etc. The Nylon 66 polymer is made of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid which provides Nylon 66, a total of 12 carbon atoms in each repeating unit.

Availability of Nylon 66

Easily available in both sheet and rod form, Nylon 66 has a wide range of applications. Generally the rods are available from 4mm-200mm diameter and the sheets are from 5mm thick to 100 mm thick.

Manufacturing Process

The ingredients i.e. Hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid are combined with water in a reactor. The outcome of this process is the nylon salt which is sent for evaporation which removes any excess water. The nylon salt is then passed through a reaction vessel where a continuous polymerization process makes molten Nylon 6,6. The molten nylon is then passed through a spinning process, with Nylon-66 extruded and sent via spinneret. Once the nylon is air cooled to form filaments.

Favourable Temperatures

Nylon-66 can operate at temperatures exceeding 100 °C, where the maximum limit is 160 °C and generally allowed only for short term applications.

Various Applications

Probably, one of the most important and popular engineering plastic, it can be utilized for a wide range of applications like bearings, gears, pulleys, screws, bushes etc.

Around 55 years back, Remington Nylon 66 took polymers to a new level with the introduction of world’s first mass produced rifle made from something other than wood.

Properties

The long molecular chains of Nylon 66 results in higher number of hydrogen bonds which also makes it extremely resilient. Being an amorphous solid, it is slightly soluble in boiling water and has large elastic properties. It offers immaculate dimensional stability, high melting point and excellent abrasion resistance. With the use of reinforcements, the physical strength of Nylon-66 can be improved multiple times. Few popular applications of Nylon includes carpet fibres, swimwear, parachutes, tyres, ropes and air bags etc.

Polycarbonate Panels – Various Applications and Benefits

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Composed of thermoplastic polymers, Polycarbonate panels are usually found in several industrial applications. Polycarbonate is a polymer which includes numerous identical units of bisphenol A which are interlinked by carbonate. This type of polymer liquefies when heated and converts into a glassy state when cooled. Polycarbonate panels offer high impact resistance and protection from cracking, breaking or chipping. These panels are available in different sizes, shapes and colors.

The polycarbonate panels are reasonably lightweight and usually available in single, double and triple wall panels. To achieve the desired shape and finish, the polymer is melted and forced through a die. Polycarbonate panels are processed using the following main processes like injection molding and extrusion.

  • Injection molding: Initially the polymer is heated, melted and then pressed into a mold, so that it can take the desired shape of the mold. Usually used to manufacture single end products, injection molding is highly effective.
  • Extrusion: The polycarbonate is melted and pressed through an orifice which allows the molten polymer to take the shape of the die. Most manufacturers use this process to produce large sheets, pipes and profiles.

There are several benefits associated with the use of polycarbonate panels which are usually used in glazing applications.

  • High durability and strength: The polycarbonate panels are used in a wide range of industrial applications. The high durability features of the panels allow it to withstand harsh climatic conditions, resistance to chemicals and abrasion.
  • Highly cost-effective: There are several factors which decide cost effectiveness like installation cost, maintenance cost and the aspect of time. Polycarbonate panels are generally expensive, so what makes them cost effective? They offer longevity which means that they maintain their condition and shape for several years, thereby providing complete value for money.
  • Greenhouse construction: Polycarbonate panels are in great demand for greenhouse construction. This is because, the panels fulfill almost all requirements of any greenhouse glazing panel. By enhancing light diffusion and guaranteeing longevity, polycarbonate panels are popular among farmers.
  • Effective design: The polycarbonate panels are available in different designs and finishes. They tend to offer a mixed variety of several properties like energy saving, moderate light transmission, insulation properties, longevity, etc.

In case of residential buildings, these panels are usually used for awnings and overhead shades because they provide protection from harmful UV rays and easily withstands strong forces. In comparison to other type of panels made with glass or plastic, the polycarbonate panels are extremely lightweight which translates to lower transport and labor costs.

Amorphous Thermoplastics – Characteristics of Non-crystalline materials

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Plastics are loaded with macromolecules which are made under the action of heat and pressure such that it can be processed into the desired shape. There are two broad classifications of a thermoplastic i.e. amorphous thermoplastics and semi-crystalline thermoplastics. When the thermoplastic is shaped at a temperature over the glass transition temperature Tg, then it is classified as Amorphous Thermoplastics. Whereas, when the temperature is over the melting temperature Tm, it is classified as Semi-crystalline thermoplastics.

Completely amorphous thermoplastics are generally brittle, stiff and quite clear in their unprocessed state. Temperature and pressure can cause the molecular arrangement to change along with the properties of the polymer. Tg or the glass transition temperature is defined as the point when the molecular rotation about single bonds becomes favorable. There are different varieties of Amorphous thermoplastics which includes materials like polystyrene, acrylics, polycarbonate, Acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene and polyvinyl chloride.

The molecules in case of amorphous thermoplastics are entangled in solid state. Most of them are transparent in their natural form, however ABS is an exception. In general, amorphous thermoplastics are known to have lower chemical resistance and lower stiffness and strength when compared with crystalline materials. However, the amorphous thermoplastics have uniform shrinkage rates which means that their shrinkage can be calculated easily.

There are additives and fillers used with both amorphous and semi-crystalline thermoplastics to alter the physical, electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of the base resin. Amorphous thermoplastics can be used in a wide variety of applications because of its diverse range of properties. With state of the art molding machine controls and latest material formulation methods, Polymer Resources guarantees high quality and consistent molded parts.

There are different varieties of crystalline materials which includes Nylon, polypropylene, polyacetal, and thermoplastic polyesters. In case of semi-crystalline thermoplastics, the size of the crystals is larger than the wavelength of visible length, thereby making the materials translucent. Depending on the branching and cooling rate, there are different degrees of crystallinity. Close to 85% of the resins produced are thermoplastics which are further classified as amorphous thermoplastics and crystalline thermoplastics. The amorphous regions of the thermoplastics contributes to the elasticity of the thermoplastic whereas the crystalline regions contribute to the strength and durability of the thermoplastic.

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The cost saving opportunities associated with the use of injection moulding technology of thermoplastics need to be ensure proper material usage and cycle time to achieve optimized results. Amorphous thermoplastics exhibit lower mold shrinkage and lower tendency to buckle under pressure when compared with semi-crystalline materials. They lose their strength and rigidity very quickly once above the glass transition temperature Tg. The randomly ordered molecular structure allows amorphous thermoplastics to soften gradually as the temperature increases.

ABS Resin Plastic – Features, Limitations and Variations

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One of the best resins of the styrene family, ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) is widely used in the automotive industry and in the manufacture of electrical and electronic equipment. The increased utilization of ABS Resin plastic means that there would be substantial volumes of material which would need to be recycled at the end of life of these products. Research studies focused on the impact of reprocessing on the physical and mechanical properties of ABS products have shown minimal impact therefore establishing the benefits of ABS Resin plastic as an easy to recycle material.

ABS is a common thermoplastic resin which guarantees high rigidity, durability, dimensional stability and excellent chemical resistance. The high quality features of ABS resin can be attributed to its composition where it brings in the strength and durability of Acrylonitrile along with the toughness of butadiene rubber. It also allows a wide range of modifications to its composition which allows to improve its impact resistance, heat resistance and toughness.

Some of the most common and well known features of ABS Resin includes:

  • Excellent ductility
  • High Impact strength
  • Extremely tough and rigid
  • Dimensional stability
  • High tensile strength
  • Heat and chemical resistance
  • Electroplatable
  • High and low temperature performance

Although there are several benefits associated with the use of ABS Resin, there are certain limitations as well like its poor solvent resistance, poor weather ability and heavy generation of smoke when burnt.

There are huge variations possible with ABS Resin, however the most common variations of ABS material includes General Purpose ABS, High Impact ABS, Low Viscosity ABS, Plate-able ABS, ABS FR and many more. The modifications of its properties is possible with the use of additives, modifiers and reinforcing agents.

ABS plastics are largely used for mechanical purposes and in the automotive industry, however it also boasts good electrical properties which show minimal impact with temperature and humidity changes.

The two most common reprocessing or recycling process used for ABS products include mechanical recycling and solvent based process. Several research studies and experiments have proved that the microstructure of ABS resin is not affected by the recycling process. For painted parts, it is usually recommended to use the solvent based recycling process to ensure minimal butadiene loss.

Known for its medium strength and performance at affordable pricing, ABS Resin is commonly used for injection molding applications. The mechanical properties of ABS Resin plastic makes it ideal for drilling, turning, die-cutting and shearing. It also possesses excellent creep resistance, abrasion resistance and electrical properties, thereby making it one of the most widely used resins ever. Because of its great versatility, ABS Resin is used in a wide variety of applications. The three components used in the manufacture of ABS resin are combined by different methods which involves polymerization, combinations and physical mixtures.